If you don’t know anything about the law, this guide is for you. I’ll explain what types of law there are, how they work and which laws apply to you.
Civil law is the legal system in which most people live. It’s often called “penal law,” because it deals with the punishment of crimes and civil disputes involving property, contracts, torts and other matters.
Civil courts are also sometimes called “common law courts,” because they use the same principles of law as the older English common law courts that developed during the Middle Ages.
Civil law, like common law, comes from past decisions by judges and juries. But civil law also has its own laws, written statutes, court rules and case precedents — all of which help to create a consistent body of law over time.
Criminal law is the body of rules, principles and procedures that govern the prosecution of people who have committed crimes.
The criminal law includes laws defining what crimes are prohibited, how they are prosecuted and punished. The criminal law also includes legal rules that give police officers powers to arrest people suspected of committing crimes, as well as procedures for holding suspects in custody until they can be charged with a crime.
Common types of crimes include assault, battery, burglary and theft. Other types of crimes include murder, manslaughter and rape.
Contract law is the area of law that determines who has legal rights and obligations in a contract. These laws are designed to protect the rights of individuals when making contracts. Contract law also provides remedies, which means that if someone is harmed by a breach of contract, they may be able to sue for damages.
Contracts can be written or oral. Written contracts are more formal and enforceable than oral agreements, but both types have their own benefits and drawbacks. Oral contracts are not always binding, but they’re easy to make and easier to remember than written ones.
Tort law is a branch of law that deals with legal claims for harm or damage caused to people or property.
The tort system evolved from the practice of awarding monetary damages to those who were harmed by another individual’s actions. However, in the United States, tort law has been transformed into a system that focuses on compensating victims, rather than punishing wrongdoers.
Most states have adopted the “American rule” in civil cases: If a plaintiff can prove that another person intentionally harmed him or her, he or she can collect damages from that person’s insurance policy. This means that if you’re injured by someone else’s negligence, you could sue them for medical expenses and other costs related to your injury.
Property law is the body of law that governs the real property and personal property (things) of people who are not in the government. It includes laws about buying, selling, renting and owning property.
It’s important to note that there are two types of property: real estate (land) and personal property. Real estate is also sometimes called immovable property, while personal property is usually referred to as movable property.
Property law deals with the ownership of land and buildings, whether they are owned by individuals or companies, how to transfer ownership from one person or company to another and how to dispose of assets when someone dies without leaving a will.
Constitutional law is the law that describes the structure and functions of government. It concerns itself with the rights and responsibilities of citizens, their freedoms, and their duties. The Constitution (the supreme law of the land) is created by a process called constitutionalism, which consists of two steps: (1) framing a constitution and (2) ratifying that document through popular vote.
The Constitution is a framework for interpreting laws. It describes what powers are reserved to the federal government; it limits those powers; it defines which laws apply to each level of government; and it sets out how certain powers can be used by each level of government. In addition, it defines basic rights that are protected by the Constitution, such as freedom of speech and religion.
Constitutional law also includes court decisions that interpret the Constitution’s provisions in order to resolve specific cases or controversies involving disputes between citizens or groups over whether or not they have been violated by government officials or laws enacted by Congress or state legislatures.
Trusts and estates law
The first thing to know about trusts is that they’re complicated. Trusts are a legal structure that allows you to place your assets and/or property in trust for someone else, called the trustee. The trustee then manages the assets according to your wishes, typically for your benefit at all times.
A trust is a contract between you and the trustee. It can be written down or oral, but in either case it must be signed by both parties (the settlor and trustee) in order for it to be valid.
Trusts can take many different forms and have different purposes, but they all share some common features:
The settlor gives property or other assets to another person or entity (called the trustee), who then holds them on behalf of them until such time as they pass away or become incapacitated.
The terms of the trust (what happens when someone dies or becomes incapacitated) are determined by you and the terms may be designed to benefit you in some way during your lifetime or after your death.
Labor and employment law
“Labor and employment law” is one of the most important areas of law. It includes laws that govern your right to organize, bargain collectively and strike. These laws also cover wage and hour laws, including minimum wage, overtime pay, meal and rest breaks, child labor laws, discrimination in hiring and firing, leave benefits, retirement benefits and more.
The labor board hears complaints from workers who believe their employer has violated their rights under the law. The board’s decisions can be appealed to state and federal courts.
Administrative law is law that regulates administrative agencies, such as the Federal Trade Commission, and their activities. These agencies enforce federal laws against unfair business practices, regulate food safety, and set standards for manufacturers.
The Administrative Procedure Act (APA) is the primary law governing what can be done by administrative agencies. The APA requires that agencies follow certain procedures before proposing a new regulation or rule. It also requires that agencies explain how the regulation will help achieve an important government objective, and it sets limits on how long an agency can take to issue a new rule or take an existing one off the books.
The APA also has some very specific requirements for who can appeal a decision made by an agency. An appeal must be filed within 60 days of when the agency issues its decision and provides information about how to file the appeal with the agency’s head of legal affairs or chief counsel office.
The law is a system of rules that govern behavior. The legal system is made up of two major branches: civil and criminal. Civil law deals with personal matters such as contracts and property, while criminal law deals with crimes such as theft and murder.
There are many different types of law. Some laws are specific to a particular area (e.g., marriage laws or environmental laws), while others apply throughout the country (e.g., tax laws). There are also different types of laws depending on the type of case being heard (e.g., traffic violations or murder cases).